**Ideal Transformer on Load:**

Transfer of energy from one circuit to another circuit through mutual induction is widely utilized in power systems. This purpose is served by Ideal Transformer on Load. Most often they transform energy at one voltage (or current) into energy at some other voltage (or current).

A transformer is a static piece of apparatus, having two or more windings or coils arranged on a common magnetic core. The transformer winding to which the supply source is connected is called the **primary,** while the winding connected to load is called the **secondary**. Accordingly, the voltage across the primary is called the primary voltage, and that across the secondary, the secondary voltage. Correspondingly i_{1} and i_{2} are the currents in the primary and secondary windings. One such transformer is shown in Fig. 10.11(a). In circuit diagrams, Ideal Transformer on Load are represented by Fig. 10.11(b). The vertical lines between the coils represent the iron core; the currents are assumed such that the mutual inductance is positive.

An Ideal Transformer on Load is characterised by assuming

- zero power dissipation in the primary and secondary windings, i.e. resistances in the coils are assumed to be zero,
- the self inductances of the primary and secondary are extremely large in comparison with the load impedance, and
- the coefficient of coupling is equal to unity, i.e. the coils are tightly coupled without having any leakage flux.

If the flux produced by the current flowing in a coil links all the turns, the self inductance of either the primary or secondary coil is proportional to the square of the number of turns of the coil. This can be verified from the following results.

The magnitude of the self induced emf is given by

If the flux linkages of the coil with N turns and current are known, then the self induced emf can be expressed as

But

From the above relation it follows that

where a = N_{2}/N_{1} is called the **turns ratio** of the transformer. The turns ratio, a, can also be expressed in terms of primary and secondary voltages. If the magnetic permeability of the core is infinitely large then the flux would be confined to the core. If Φ is the flux through a single turn coil on the core and N_{1}, N_{2} are the number of turns of the primary and secondary, respectively, then the total flux through windings 1 and 2, respectively, are

Also we have

so that

Figure 10.12 shows an ideal transformer to which the secondary is connected to a load impedance Z_{L}. The turns ratio N_{2}/N_{1} = a.

The Ideal Transformer on Load is a very useful model for circuit calculations, because with few additional elements like R, L and C, the actual behavior of the physical transformer can be accurately represented. Let us analyse this transformer with sinusoidal excitation. When the excitation are sinusoidal voltages or currents, the steady state response will also be sinusoidal. We can use phasors for representing these voltages and currents. The input impedance of the transformer can be determined by writing mesh equations for the circuit shown in Fig. 10.12.

where V_{1}, V_{2} are the voltage phasors, and I_{1},I_{2} are the current phasors in the two windings. jωL_{1} and jωL_{2} are the impedances of the self inductances and jωM is the impedance of the mutual inductance, ω is the angular frequency.

from Eq.10.2

Substituting in Eq. 10.1, we have

The input impedance Z_{in} = V_{1}/I_{1}

when the coefficient of coupling is assumed to be equal to unity,

We have already established that L_{2}/L_{1} = a^{2}

where a is the turns ratio N_{2}/N_{1}

Further simplication leads to

As L_{2} is assumed to be infinitely large compared to Z_{L}

The above result has an interesting interpretation, that is the ideal transformers change the impedance of a load, and can be used to match circuits with different impedances in order to achieve maximum power transfer.

For example, the input impedance of a loudspeaker is usually very small, say 3 to 12 Q, for connecting directly to an amplifier. The transformer proper turns ratio can be placed between the output of the amplifier and the input of the loudspeaker to match the impedances as shown in Fig. 10.13.