# Modern Power System

## Series and Shunt Compensation of Transmission Lines

Series and Shunt Compensation of Transmission Lines: The performance of long EHV AC transmission systems can be improved by reactive compensation of series or shunt (parallel) type. Series capacitors and shunt reactors are used to reduce artificially the series reactance and shunt susceptance of lines and thus they act as the line compensators. Series and […]

## Trends in Voltage Stability of Power Systems

Trends in Voltage Stability of Power Systems: Trends in Voltage Stability of Power Systems – The present day transmission networks are getting more and more stressed due to economic and environmental constraints. The trend is to operate the existing networks optimally close to their loadability limit. This consequently means that the system operation is also

## Prevention of Voltage Collapse in Power System

Prevention of Voltage Collapse in Power System: Prevention of Voltage Collapse in Power System is given by 1. Application of reactive power-compensating devices: Adequate stability margins should be ensured by proper selection of compensation schemes in terms of their size, ratings and locations. 2. Control of network voltage and generator reactive output: Several utilities in

## Voltage Stability Analysis

Voltage Stability Analysis: The voltage stability analysis for a given system state involves examining following two aspects. Proximity to voltage instability: Distance to instability may be measured in terms of physical quantities, such as load level, real power flow through a critical interface, and reactive power reserve. Possible contingencies, such as a line outage, loss

## Mathematical Formulation of Voltage Stability

Mathematical Formulation of Voltage Stability: Mathematical Formulation of Voltage Stability – The slower forms of voltage instability are normally analyzed as steady state problems using power flow simulation as the primary study method. “Snap­shots” in time following an outage or during load build up are simulated. Besides these post-disturbance power flows, two other power flow

## Voltage Stability in Power System

Voltage Stability in Power System: Voltage Stability in Power System – Voltage control and stability problems are very much familiar to the electric utility industry but are now receiving special attention by every power system analyst and researcher. With growing size along with economic and environmental pressures, the possible threat of voltage instability is becoming

## Long Term Load Forecasting in Power System

Long Term Load Forecasting in Power System: Long Term Load Forecasting – If the load forecasts are required for planning purposes, it is necessary to select the lead time to lie in the range of a few months to a few years. In such cases, the load demand should be decomposed in a manner that

## Kalman Filtering Approach

Kalman Filtering Approach: The time series approach has been widely employed in dealing with the load forecasting problem in view of the relative simplicity of the model forms. However, this method tends to ignore the statistical information about the load data which may often be available and may lead to improved load forecasts if utilized

## Time Series Forecasting Methods

Time Series Forecasting Methods: If yd(k) is subtracted from the sequence y(k), the result would be a sequence of data for the stochastic part of the load. We have to identify the model for ys(k) and then use it to make the prediction ys(k + j). A convenient method for this is based on the

## Estimation Techniques of Periodic Components

Estimation Techniques of Periodic Components: Estimation Techniques of Periodic Components – The deterministic part of the load may contain some periodic components in addition to the average and the polynomial terms. Consider for example the curve shown in Fig. 16.2 which gives the variation of the active power supplied by a power utility over a

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