Basic Components of Static Relays

Sampling Circuits

Sampling Circuits: Sampling Circuits is one which allows a comparison of instantaneous values derived at different instants of time, thereby dispensing with the need to phase shift and mix signals derived from the primary line quantities. Figure (10.36) shows a sampling circuits in conjunction with an amplitude pulse width convertor (A/W convertor), this complete circuit …

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Summation Device

Summation Device: Summation transformers and sequence networks as already discussed can combine a number of electrical quantities into a single quantity. The operational amplifier is commonly used as a mixer or summer and the Summation Device is shown in Fig. (10.35). The arrangement is used to obtain an output which is a linear combination of …

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Smoothing Circuits

Smoothing Circuits: The rectified a.c. consists of a series of undirectional half waves of current or voltage. It is generally desirable to smooth this output. The various filters used for Smoothing Circuits are the conventional RC filter, RC chain filter, transistorized filter, bucking transformer filter, phase splitting circuits, etc., some basic Smoothing Circuits are shown …

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