# Network Analysis and Synthesis

## Voltage and Current Divider Rule

Voltage and Current Divider Rule: Voltage and Current Divider Rule is explained by two conditions, namely Voltage Division in Series Circuit of Resistors Current Division in Parallel Circuit of Resistors Voltage Division in Series Circuit of Resistors: Consider a series circuit of two resistors R1 and R2 connected to source of V volts is shown …

## Attenuator Network

Attenuator Network: An attenuator network must fulfil following conditions. It must give correct input impedance, It must give correct output impedance and It must provide specified attenuation. In general, attenuation is expressed in decibel as follows, where D is the attenuation in decibel. But we can express attenuation in neper as follows, where N is …

## Attenuators in Network Analysis

Attenuators in Network Analysis: In various transmission equipments, it is many times required to supress or reduce the levels of the currents and voltages at certain points. To fulfill the need of attenuation, a four terminal resistive network called attenuator is used. Attenuators in Network Analysis are designed to provide a known amount of attenuation …

## Chebyshev Approximation

Chebyshev Approximation: Chebyshev Approximation – In the earlier section, we have studied that the Butterworth approximation is the best at ω = 0. But as we move towards cut-off frequency, ωc = 1, approximation becomes poorer. It departs from ideal characteristics. Let us consider an approximation which “ripples” about the normalized magnitude, unity, in the pass …

## Butterworth Approximation

Butterworth Approximation: Butterworth Approximation – In low-pass filter design, we have to assume that all transmission zeros of the system function are at infinity. Then the magnitude function in general form can be written as, Where k is called as dc gain constant as it is the magnitude at ω = 0. f (ω2) is …

## Normalized Low Pass Filter Characteristics

Normalized Low Pass Filter Characteristics: Normalized Low Pass Filter Characteristics – The passive filters are the filters consisting only passive components such as resistors, inductors, capacitors. These classical filters are designed starting with filter networks such as T type, Π type etc. Low Pass Filter Characteristics is obtained by connecting inductor in the series arm …

## Composite Filters in Network Analysis

Composite Filters in Network Analysis: Composite Filters in Network Analysis – In prototype filter sections, the attenuation characteristic is not very sharp in the attenuation band as it is expected. This drawback can be overcome by using m-derived filter sections which are derived from respective prototype filter sections. But it is observed that in the …

## Impedance Matching using Half Sections

Impedance Matching using Half Sections: While connecting number of different sections in the filter, it is very important to match the impedances of the sections at the junction points. Thus a T section should not be connected to a π section directly as both the sections have different impedances. Hence it is necessary to use …

## m Derived Band Stop Filter

m Derived Band Stop Filter: The m Derived Band Stop Filter can be derived from the prototype band elimination filter section in the exactly same way as the m-derived band pass filter. The m Derived Band Stop Filter section is as shown in the Fig. 9.37. The relationship between frequency of infinite attenuation (f1∞ , …

## m Derived Band Pass Filter

m Derived Band Pass Filter: We can obtain m Derived Band Pass Filter if the prototype band pass filter is simplified according to the network in the Fig. 9.35 which has been used to obtain m-derived low pass and high pass sections. The T section in each case will have a shunt impedance, Z2/m + …

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