## Attenuator Network

Attenuator Network: An attenuator network must fulfil following conditions. It must give correct input impedance, It must give correct output impedance and It must provide specified attenuation. In general, attenuation is expressed in decibel as follows, where D is the attenuation in decibel. But we can express attenuation in neper as follows, where N is […]

## Attenuators in Network Analysis

Attenuators in Network Analysis: In various transmission equipments, it is many times required to supress or reduce the levels of the currents and voltages at certain points. To fulfill the need of attenuation, a four terminal resistive network called attenuator is used. Attenuators in Network Analysis are designed to provide a known amount of attenuation […]

## Chebyshev Approximation

Chebyshev Approximation: Chebyshev Approximation – In the earlier section, we have studied that the Butterworth approximation is the best at ω = 0. But as we move towards cut-off frequency, ωc = 1, approximation becomes poorer. It departs from ideal characteristics. Let us consider an approximation which “ripples” about the normalized magnitude, unity, in the pass […]

## Butterworth Approximation

Butterworth Approximation: Butterworth Approximation – In low-pass filter design, we have to assume that all transmission zeros of the system function are at infinity. Then the magnitude function in general form can be written as, Where k is called as dc gain constant as it is the magnitude at ω = 0. f (ω2) is […]

## Normalized Low Pass Filter Characteristics

Normalized Low Pass Filter Characteristics: Normalized Low Pass Filter Characteristics – The passive filters are the filters consisting only passive components such as resistors, inductors, capacitors. These classical filters are designed starting with filter networks such as T type, Π type etc. Low Pass Filter Characteristics is obtained by connecting inductor in the series arm […]

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