**Carrier Concentration in Intrinsic Semiconductor:**

For determination of the conductivity of a semiconductor, it is essential to know the Carrier Concentration in Intrinsic Semiconductor of free electrons in conduction band and concentration of holes in valence band.

**Number of Electrons in the Conduction Band:**

The product of the number of existing states at any energy E and the probability of its occupancy gives the population of occupied states by an electron. The electron population (the number of conduction electrons dn per cubic metre) at any energy level is defined as

where N(E) is the density of states (number of states per electron volt per cubic metre) and f(E) is the Fermi function (probability that an electron occupies a quantum state with energy E).

The density of states N(E) is given by

The above equation derivation is based on the assumption that the bottom of the conduction band is at zero potential. But in a semiconductor the lowest energy in the conduction band is E_{C} and therefore, the above equation is modified as

The Fermi-Dirac probability function f(E) is given by

where E_{F} is the Fermi level or characteristic energy for the crystal in eV.

The concentration of electrons in the conduction band is given by

For E ≥ E_{C}, i.e., in the conduction band, E – E_{F} ≫ kT and Eq. (6.76) reduces to

and hence

Rearranging Eq. (6.78) as

Assuming

Also E = E_{C} for x = 0 and E = ∞ for x = ∞

Hence Eq. (6.79) may be rewritten as

Using the definite integral

Thus, the Carrier Concentration in Intrinsic Semiconductor of electrons in conduction band may be expressed as

where

which is called the **effective density of states function** in the conduction band. This may be defined as a **hypothetical** density of electron states placed at the bottom of the conduction band energy E_{C}, which when multiplied with the Fermi function f(E_{C}), gives the free electron concentration in a semiconductor at absolute temperature T. Truly, the electron state density at E = E_{C} is zero. The term hypothetical is used to signify the difference between the state density in reality and is used to define the effective state density n_{C}. However, the effective state density (n_{C}) is a constant parameter for a given semiconductor material at a given temperature. For germanium and silicon, the values of n_{C} are 1.02 x 10^{25}/m^{3} and 2.8 x 10^{25}/m^{3} respectively at room temperature (300 K)

where

- m
_{e }= Effective mass of electron in kg - = 9.107 x 10
^{-31}x m_{e}/m kg - h = Planck constant in J-s = 6.625 x 10
^{-34}J-s - k = Boltzmann constant in eV/K = 8.62 x 10
^{-5}eV/K - k′ = Boltzmann constant in J/K
- = 1.602 x 10
^{-19}x 8.62 x 10^{-5}= 1.38 x 10^{-23}J/K

**Number of Holes in the Valence Band:**

When the maximum energy in the valence band is E_{V}, the density of states may be given by

Since a hole is nothing but a vacancy created by removal of an electron (i.e., empty energy level), the Fermi function for a hole is 1 – f(E), where f(E) represents the probability that the level is occupied by an electron. Thus, the probability function for a hole is given by

The concentration of holes in the valence band

The integral evaluates to

where

where m_{h} is the effective mass of a hole.

**Fermi Level in an Intrinsic Semiconductor:**

It is to be noted that Eqs. (6.81) and (6.86) are applicable to both intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. In the case of intrinsic material the subscript i will be added to n and p. Since the semiconductor crystal is electrically neutral,

Thus

If the effective masses of a free electron and hole are the same i.e., n_{C} = n_{V}.

Then,

Hence, the Fermi level lies in the centre of the forbidden energy band.

**Intrinsic Concentration:**

The product of Carrier Concentration in Intrinsic Semiconductor of electrons and holes can be had by multiplying Eqs. (6.80) and (6.85) i.e.,

This product is independent of the Fermi level E_{F,} but does depend upon the temperature T and forbidden energy gap E_{G} ≡ (E_{C} – E_{V}). Equation (6.89) is applicable to both intrinsic as well extrinsic semiconductors. For intrinsic semiconductor

From Eq. (6.81)

The dimensions of n_{C} is that of concentration (i.e., number/m^{3}). From Eq. (6.86)

Substituting these values in Eq. (6.89), we have

The variation of E_{G }with temperature is given by

where E_{G0} is the amplitude of the energy gap at 0 K. Substituting this relationship in Eq. (6.92), we have

Where

is a constant and β has the dimensions of eV per Kelvin.

The values of n_{i} and E_{G} are given in Table 6.4.