Integrated FETs

Integrated FETs In general the Integrated FETs (field effect transistors) are of two types namely Junction field effect transistor (JFET) Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) 1 Integrated JFET The basic processes used for the fabrication of JFET are exactly similar to those used in the fabrication of BJT. The JFETs are further classified […]

Integrated Capacitors

Integrated Capacitors: Integrated Capacitors – The common parallel plate capacitor structures are as shown in the Fig. 1.24. In most widely used type shown in Fig. 1.24 (a), the two polysilicon plates are seperated by silicon dioxide (Si02). Here the lower plate rests on the top of the substrate. The capacitor shown in Fig. 1.24 […]

Integrated Resistors

Integrated Resistors: In Integrated Resistors circuit design, the importance is given to the maximum usage of transistors. For example digital CMOS, nMOS and GaAs circuits are fabricated entirely with transistors and diodes. The resistors are grouped into two groups ; one formed within monolithic IC and other composed of film resistors. The monolithic IC resistors […]

PNP Transistor

PNP Transistor: There are different ways of fabricating PNP Transistor in integrated circuits. The important means of integrating PNP Transistor are (i) vertical p-n-p, (ii) lateral p-n-p and (iii) triple diffused p-n-p. In vertical p–n–p transistor, the p type substrate is used as p-type collector while the n-epitaxial layer is used as base. Obviously the […]

Monolithic Transistors

Monolithic Transistors: The cross-sectional view of an integrated monolithic transistors and discrete planar transistor are as shown in the Fig. 1.17 (a) and (b) respectively. The main difference between monolithic integrated transistor and discrete planar transistor is that collector contact in monolithic integrated transistor is at top, while in the discrete planar transistor it is […]


Packaging: Packaging – After completing all the fabrication processes, several chips are ready on a wafer. Each of the chip is nothing but a complete circuit. Now the next step is to separate out these chips and package them individually. Using a diamond tipped tool lines are scribed along the rectangular grides on the surface […]


Metallization: Metallization is a process in which a thin layer of metal is formed which is used to make interconnections between the components on the chip as well as interconnections between the components and the outside world. In general metallization applications are divided into three groups, (i) gate, (ii) contact and (iii) interconnects. In VLSI, […]