Category: Fabrication of Integrated Circuits

Types of Field Effect Transistor

Types of Field Effect Transistor: In general, Three Types of Field Effect Transistor are namely, Junction field effect transistor (JFET) Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Junction field effect transistor (JFET): The basic processes used for the fabrication of JFET are exactly similar to those used in the fabrication […]

Parallel Plate Capacitor

Parallel Plate Capacitor: The common parallel plate capacitor structures are as shown in the Fig. 1.24. In most widely used parallel plate capacitor type shown in Fig. 1.24 (a), the two polysilicon plates are seperated by silicon dioxide (Si02). Here the lower plate rests on the top of the substrate. The capacitor shown in Fig. […]

Integrated Resistor

Integrated Resistor: In Integrated Resistor circuit design, the importance is given to the maximum usage of transistors. For example digital CMOS, nMOS and GaAs circuits are fabricated entirely with transistors and diodes. The Integrated Resistor are grouped into two groups ; one formed within monolithic IC and other composed of film resistors. The monolithic IC […]

Monolithic Diodes

Monolithic Diodes: Monolithic Diodes – The fabrication of diode is very straight forward. Generally any two terminals of the transistor are connected together to form one of the electrodes while the remaining terminal can be considered as remainining electrode of a diode. The different connections in transistor to utilize it as a diode are as […]

Fabrication of PNP Transistor in Integrated Circuit

Fabrication of PNP Transistor in Integrated Circuit: There are different ways of Fabrication of PNP Transistor in Integrated Circuit. The important means of integrating PNP Transistor are Vertical PNP transistor, Lateral PNP transistor and Triple Diffused PNP transistor. Vertical PNP transistor: In Vertical PNP transistor, the p type substrate is used as p-type collector while […]

Fabrication of Monolithic IC

Fabrication of Monolithic IC: The cross-sectional view of an Fabrication of Monolithic IC and discrete planar transistor are as shown in the Fig. 1.17 (a) and (b) respectively. The main difference between Fabrication of Monolithic IC and discrete planar transistor is that collector contact in monolithic integrated transistor is at top, while in the discrete […]

IC Packaging Process

IC Packaging Process: After completing all the fabrication processes, several chips are ready on a wafer. Each of the chip is nothing but a complete circuit. Now the next step is to separate out these chips and package them individually. Using a diamond tipped tool lines are scribed along the rectangular grides on the surface […]

Metallization Process

Metallization Process | Types of Metallization | Applications: Metallization Process in which a thin layer of metal is formed which is used to make interconnections between the components on the chip as well as interconnections between the components and the outside world. In general metallization applications are divided into three groups, Gate, Contact and Interconnects. […]

Ion Implantation Process in IC Fabrication

Ion Implantation Process in IC Fabrication: As we know, the conductivity of the semiconductor increases when small impurity is added to it. The process of adding impurity is called doping while the impurity to be added is called dopant. So ion implantation is a process of adding dopant to the silicon substrate. The ion implantation […]

Diffusion Process in IC Fabrication

Diffusion Process in IC Fabrication: Diffusion is the oldest technique used to add impurity into the Substrate. The main aim of thee Diffusion process is to change ┬áthe Conductivity of silicon substrate over a depth. The Diffusion Process in IC Fabrication is used in bipolar device technology to form bases, emitters, collectors ; while in […]