Category: Fabrication of Integrated Circuits

Reactive Plasma Etching

Reactive Plasma Etching: The reactive plasma is the discharge in which gases ionized producing chemically active species, oxidizers, reagents. The plasma is reactive in both gaseous and solid phase, hence the name is Reactive Plasma. These plasmas are used to remove the materials from the surfaces which are not masked by the lithographic patterns. The […]

Lithography Process

Lithography Process: Lithography Process is used to produce a multiple image on the resists which covers the wafer. A lithographic process can be realised with the help of three sub processes given by, Deposit of the resist, Imaging of the wafer, and Etching of the oxide. In Lithography Process, the radiation from a source is […]

Oxidation in IC Fabrication

Oxidation in IC Fabrication: Oxidation in IC Fabrication is very important process. In one line, oxidation can be explained as the production of Si02 using the thermal growth technique. Some of the important uses of Si02 are as follows. In bipolar and MOS transistors, it isolates one device from other. It provides surface passivation. It […]

Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Molecular Beam Epitaxy: The molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is based on evaporation. In MBE, the film is evaporated and deposited one layer at a time. In the process, no chemical reactions are considered. Instead of that the evaporation of silicon and other dopant is carried out under ultra high vacuum (UHV) pressures of the orders […]

Vapour Phase Epitaxy Process

Vapour Phase Epitaxy Process: In chemical vapour deposition (CVD), the film is formed on the surface of the substrate by thermal decomposition and or the reaction of various gaseous compounds. As in CVD, the epitaxial layer is formed from the gaseous vapour phase, hence it is called Vapour Phase Epitaxy. The process of chemical vapour […]

Basic Planar Process in IC Fabrication

Basic Planar Process in IC Fabrication: The Basic Planar Process in IC Fabrication are as listed below. Crystal growth and wafer preparation, Epitaxial growth, Oxidation, Lithography, Reactive plasma etching, Diffusion, Ion implantation, Metallization, Assembly techniques and packaging Let us study each process in detail one by one. Crystal Growth and Wafer Preparation In this Basic […]

Integrated Circuits Classification

Integrated Circuits Classification: Depending upon the functional utility, the Integrated Circuits Classification are classified as linear ICs and digital ICs. From the point of view of structural considerations, ICs can be divided as monolithic ICs, thick-thin film ICs and hybrid ICs. The monolithic ICs are most common type of IC. In the monolithic ICs, all […]

Integrated Circuits Introduction

Integrated Circuits Introduction: Integrated Circuits Introduction referred as microelectronics, is the result of continued improvements in the characteristics and miniaturizations employed in solid state devices and components. So we can call integrated electronics as logical extension of silicon device technology. Today integrated electronics is used to realize complete circuits over a single semiconductor chip of […]