Monolithic Transistors

Monolithic Transistors: The cross-sectional view of an integrated monolithic transistors and discrete planar transistor are as shown in the Fig. 1.17 (a) and (b) respectively. The main difference between monolithic integrated transistor and discrete planar transistor is that collector contact in monolithic integrated transistor is at top, while in the discrete planar transistor it is […]


Metallization: Metallization is a process in which a thin layer of metal is formed which is used to make interconnections between the components on the chip as well as interconnections between the components and the outside world. In general metallization applications are divided into three groups, (i) gate, (ii) contact and (iii) interconnects. In VLSI, […]


Diffusion Diffusion is the Oldest Technique used to add impurity into the Substrate. The main aim of thee Diffusion process is to change  the Conductivity of silicon substrate over a depth. The diffusion is used in bipolar device technology to form bases, emitters, collectors ; while in MOS device technology to form source and drain […]

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