Programmable Array Logic

Programmable Array Logic: We have seen that  PLA device with a Programmable AND array and Programmable OR array. However, Programmable Array Logic programmable logic device with a fixed OR array and a programmable AND array. Because only AND gates are programmable , the PAL is easier to program, but is not as flexible as the PLA. Fig.3.106 […]

Programmable Logic Array

Programmable Logic Array (PLA): Programmable Logic Array – The combinational circuit do not use all the minterms every time. Occasionally, they have don’t care conditions. Don’t care condition when implemented with a ROM becomes an address input that will never occur. The result is that not all the bit patterns available in the ROM are […]

Dynamic RAM

Dynamic RAM: Dynamic RAM stores the data as a charge on the capacitor. Fig.3.77 shows the dynamic RAM cell. A dynamic RAM contains thousands of such memory cells. When COLUMN (Sence) and ROW (Control) lines go high, the MOSFET conducts and charges the capacitor. When the COLUMN and ROW lines go low, the MOSFET opens […]

Flash Memory

Flash Memory: Flash memory (sometimes called “flash RAM”) is a type of constantly-powered nonvolatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed in units of memory called blocks. It is a variation of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) which, unlike flash memory, is erased and rewritten at the byte level, which is slower than flash […]


NVRAM: NVRAM – It is non-volatile RAM. It created by the combination of a static RAM and an electrically erasable PROM (EEPROM) in the same chip. The EEPROM and static RAM have exact mirror memories structure of each other. Upon powered it functions as a normal RAM. In case of power failure, it saves the […]