Beta Gauge Thickness Measurement

Beta Gauge Thickness Measurement: Beta Gauge Thickness Measurement – A common and characteristic feature of a radioactive element is that they disintegrate spontaneously to produce fresh radioactive elements called daughter elements. This activity of parent elements is termed as radioactivity.. During this disintegration, high energy radiations are emitted from the nuclear of the radioactive element. […]

Turbine Flow meter Principle

Turbine Flow meter Principle: The Turbine Flow meter Principle is used for the measurement of liquid gas and gases of very low flow rate. It works on the principle of turbine. It consists of a multibladed rotor (called turbine wheel) which is mounted 90° to the axis of the flowing liquid as shown in Fig. […]

Magnetic Flow Meter Construction

Magnetic Flow Meter Construction: Magnetic Flow Meter Construction are the first type of flowmeters to be considered for high corrosive applications and for applications involving measurement of erosive slurries. These meters work on the principle of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, which states that whenever a conductor moves through a magnetic field of given field […]

Mechanical Transducer Definition

Mechanical Transducer Definition: Mechanical Transducer Definition – The measurement of flow rate and quantity is the oldest of all measurements of process variables in the field of instrumentation. It is used to determine the amount of materials flowing in or out of a process. Without flow measurements, plant material balancing, quality control and the operation […]

Ultrasonic Temperature Transducer

Ultrasonic Temperature Transducer: Ultrasonic Temperature Transducer (sound vibrations above 20 kHz) are useful when we are concerned with rapid temperature fluctuations, temperature extremes, limited access, nuclear or other severe environmental requirements and measurement of temperature distribution inside solid bodies. They may be used to measure the distribution of parameters other than temperature (example flow). Ultrasonics […]

Pyrometer Working Principle

Pyrometer Working Principle: Pyrometer Working Principle – When temperature being measured is very high and physical contact with the medium to be measured is impossible or impractical, optical pyrometers based on the principle of thermal radiation are used. These Pyrometer Working Principle are used under condition where corrosive vapours or liquids would destroy thermocouples, resistance […]

IC Type Sensor

IC Type Sensor: IC Type Sensor produces a voltage or current signal that increases with increase in temperature. IC Type Sensor eliminate the linearity errors associated with thermistor. However, being semiconductor devices, they are available in both voltage and current output configuration.  Figure 13.51 shows a National semiconductor LM335 IC temperature sen­sor. It provides a […]

Semiconductor Diode Temperature Sensor

Semiconductor Diode Temperature Sensor: Semiconductor Diode Temperature Sensor is a versatile device and finds use in many applications. Two of its parameter, that is forward voltage drop (Vf) and reverse saturation current (Is) are temperature sensitive. The sensitivity of Is with temperature is non-linear, but Vf has a linear temperature coefficient over a wide temperature range. Hence, Vf can […]

Resistance Thermometer Bridge Circuit

Resistance Thermometer Bridge Circuit: The resistance of a conductor changes when its temperature is changed. This property is used for measurement of temperature. The Resistance Thermometer Bridge Circuit uses the change in electrical resistance of conductor to determine the temperature. The requirements of a conductor material to be used in these thermometers are: The change […]

Resistance Temperature Detector Working

Resistance Temperature Detector Working: Resistance Temperature Detector Working commonly use platinum, nickel or any resistance wire whose resistance varies with temperature and which has a high intrinsic accuracy. They are available in many configuration and sizes; as shielded or open units for both immersion and surface applications. The relationship between temperature and resistance of conductors […]

Temperature Transducer

Temperature Transducer: Temperature Transducer is one of the most widely measured and controlled variable in industry, as a lot of products during manufacturing requires controlled temperature at various stages of processing. A wide variety of Temperature Transducer and temperature measurement systems have been developed for different applications requirements. Most of the Temperature Transducer are of […]

Photoelectric Transducer Working

Photoelectric Transducer Working: Photoelectric Transducer Working can be categorised as photo emissive, photo-conductive or photo-voltaic. In photo emissive devices, radiation falling on a cathode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode surface. In photo conductive devices, the resistance of a material is changed when it is illuminated. Photo voltaic cells generate an output voltage […]

Piezoelectric Transducer Working Principle

Piezoelectric Transducer Working Principle: Piezoelectric Transducer Working Principle – A symmetrical crystalline materials such as Quartz, Rochelle salt and Barium titanate produce an emf when they are placed under stress. This property is used in Piezoelectric Transducer Working Principle, where a crystal is placed between a solid base and the force-summing member, as shown in […]