Control of Voltage Profile: Control of Voltage Profile at the receiving bus in the fundamental two-bus system was discussed in Section 5.10. Though the same general conclusions hold for an interconnected system, it is important to discuss this problem in greater detail. At a bus with generation, voltage can be conveniently controlled by adjusting generator […]

### LOAD FLOW STUDIES

## Comparison of Load Flow Methods

Comparison of Load Flow Methods: Comparison of Load Flow Methods – Gauss Seidel and Newton Raphson methods are compared when both use YBUS as the network model. It is experienced that the Gauss Seidel method works well when programmed using rectangular coordinates, whereas Newton Raphson requires more memory when rectangular coordinates are used. Hence, polar coordinates […]

## Decoupled Load Flow Methods

Decoupled Load Flow Methods: An important characteristic of any practical electric power transmission system operating in steady state is the strong interdependence between real powers and bus voltages angles and between reactive powers and voltage magnitudes. This interesting property of weak coupling between P- δ and Q-V variables gave the necessary motivation in developing the […]

## Newton Raphson Method

Newton Raphson Method: The Newton Raphson Method is a powerful method of solving non-linear algebraic equations. It works faster and is sure to converge in most cases as compared to the GS method. It is indeed the practical method of load flow solution of large power networks. Its only drawback is the large requirement of […]

## Gauss Seidel Method

Gauss Seidel Method: The Gauss Seidel Method (GS) is an iterative algorithm for solving a set of non-linear algebraic equations. To start with, a solution vector is assumed, based on guidance from practical experience in a physical situation. One of the equations is then used to obtain the revised value of a particular variable by […]

## Load Flow Problem

## Formation of YBUS By Singular Transformation

Formation of YBUS By Singular Transformation: Formation of YBUS By Singular Transformation – The matrix pair YBUS and ZBUS form the network models for load flow studies. The YBUS can be alternatively assembled by use of singular transformations given by a graph theoretical approach. This alternative approach is of great theoretical and practical significance and […]

## Network Model Formulation

Network Model Formulation: Network Model Formulation – The load flow problem has, in fact, been already introduced in Chapter 5 with the help of a fundamental system, i.e. a two-bus problem (see Example 5.8). For a load flow study of a real life power system comprising a large number of buses, it is necessary to […]