## Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit: In many practical applications, it is always not necessary to analyse the complete circuit; it requires that the voltage, current, or power in only one resistance of a circuit be found. The use of this theorem provides a simple, equivalent circuit which can be substituted for the original network. Thevenin Equivalent Circuit […]

## Principle of Superposition Theorem

Principle of Superposition Theorem: The Principle of Superposition Theorem states that in any linear network containing two or more sources, the response in any element is equal to the algebraic sum of the responses caused by individual sources acting alone, while the other sources are non-operative; that is, while considering the effect of individual sources, […]

## Star Delta Control Circuit

Star Delta Control Circuit: The star delta transformation is another technique useful in solving complex networks. Basically, any three circuit elements, i.e. resistive, inductive or capacitive, may be connected in two different ways. One way of connecting these elements is called the star connection, or the Y connection. The other way of connecting these elements […]

## Source Transformation Technique

Source Transformation Technique: Source Transformation Technique – In solving networks to find solutions one may have to deal with energy sources. It has already been discussed before that basically, energy sources are either voltage sources or current sources. Sometimes it is necessary to convert a voltage source to a current source and vice-versa. Any practical […]

## Supernode Analysis

Supernode Analysis: Suppose any of the branches in the network has a voltage source, then it is slightly difficult to apply nodal analysis. One way to overcome this difficulty is to apply the Supernode Analysis. In this method, the two adjacent nodes that are connected by a voltage source are reduced to a single node […]

## Nodal Analysis Examples

Nodal Analysis Examples: Nodal Analysis Examples – we discussed simple circuits containing only two nodes, including the reference node. In general, in a N node circuit, one of the nodes is chosen as reference or datum node, then it is possible to write N — 1 Nodal Analysis Examples by assuming N — 1 node […]

## Supermesh Analysis

Supermesh Analysis: Suppose any of the branches in the network has a current source, then it is slightly difficult to apply mesh analysis straight forward because first we should assume an unknown voltage across the current source, writing mesh equations as before, and then relate the source current to the assigned mesh currents. This is […]

## Mesh Analysis Equation

Mesh Analysis Equation: Mesh Analysis Equation and nodal analysis are two basic important techniques used in finding solutions for a network. The suitability of either mesh or nodal analysis to a particular problem depends mainly on the number of voltage sources or current sources. If a network has a large number of voltage sources, it is […]

## Cut Set Matrix and Tree Branch Voltages

Cut Set Matrix and Tree Branch Voltages: A Cut Set Matrix is a minimal set of branches of a connected graph such that the removal of these branches causes the graph to be cut into exactly two parts. The important property of a cut-set is that by restoring anyone of the branches of the cut-set […]

## Tie Set Matrix

Tie Set Matrix(Link Currents): Tie Set Matrix – For a given tree of a graph, addition of each link between any two nodes forms a loop called the fundamental loop. In a loop there exists a closed path and a circulating current, which is called the link current. The current in any branch of a […]

## Incidence Matrix

Incidence Matrix (A): The incidence of elements to nodes in a connected graph is shown by the element node incidence matrix (A). Arrows indicated in the branches of a graph result in an oriented or a directed graph. These arrows are the indication for the current flow or voltage rise in the network. It can […]

Twigs and Links: Twigs and Links – The branches of a tree are called its ‘twigs’. For a given graph, the complementary set of branches of the tree is called the co-tree of the graph. The branches of a co-tree are called links, i.e. those elements of the connected graph that are not included in […]

## CoTree and Tree in Circuit Analysis

CoTree and Tree in Circuit Analysis: CoTree and Tree in Circuit Analysis – A tree is a connected subgraph of a network which consists of all the nodes of the original graph but no closed paths. The graph of a network may have a number of trees. The number of nodes in a graph is […]

## Methods of Circuit Analysis

Methods of Circuit Analysis: A division of mathematics called topology or graph theory deals with graphs of networks and provides information that helps in the formulation of network equations. In Methods of Circuit Analysis, all the elements in a network must satisfy Kirchhoff ‘s laws, besides their own characteristics. Based on these laws, we can […]

## Current Division

Current Division: In a parallel circuit, the Current Division in all branches. Thus, a parallel circuit acts as a current divider. The total current entering into the parallel branches is divided into the branches currents according to the resistance values. The branch having higher resistance allows lesser current, and the branch with lower resistance allows […]

## Kirchhoff’s Current Law

Kirchhoff’s Current Law: Kirchhoff’s Current Law states that the sum of the currents entering into any node is equal to the sum of the currents leaving that node. The node may be an interconnection of two or more branches. In any parallel circuit, the node is a junction point of two or more branches. The […]

## Voltage Divider

Voltage Divider: The series circuit acts as a voltage divider. Since the same current flows through each resistor, the voltage drops are proportional to the values of resistors. Using this principle, different voltages can be obtained from a single source, called a voltage divider. For example, the voltage across a 40 Ω resistor is twice […]