Category: Compensation in Power System

Facts Controllers

Facts Controllers: The development of FACTS controllers has followed two different approaches. The first approach employs reactive impedances or a tap changing transformer with thyristor switches as controlled elements, the second approach employs self-commutated static converters as controlled voltage sources. In general, FACTS controllers can be divided into four categories. (i) series (ii) shunt (iii) […]

Principle Operation of Converters

Principle Operation of Converters: Principle Operation of Converters – Controllable reactive power can’be generated by dc to ac switching converters which are switched in synchronism with the line voltage with which the reactive power is exchanged. A switching power converter consists of an array of solid-state switches which connect the input terminals to the output […]

Flexible AC Transmission Systems

Flexible AC Transmission Systems: Flexible AC Transmission Systems – The rapid development of power electronics technology provides exciting opportunities to develop new power system equipment for better utilization of existing systems. Since 1990, a number of control devices under the term FACTS technology have been proposed and implemented. FACTS devices can be effectively used for […]

Difference Between SVC and Statcom

Difference Between SVC and Statcom: Difference Between SVC and Statcom may be noted that in the normal linear operating range of the V-I characteristic and functional compensation capability of the STATCOM and the SVC are similar. However, the basic operating principles of the STATCOM, which, with a converter based var generator, functions as a shunt-connected […]

Shunt Compensations

Shunt Compensations: Shunt Compensations are connected in shunt at various system nodes (major substations) and sometimes at mid-point of lines. These serve the purposes of voltage control and load stabilization. As a result of installation of shunt compensators in the system, the nearby generators operate at near unity pf and voltage emergencies mostly do not […]

Series Compensation

Series Compensation: Series Compensation – A capacitor in series with a line gives control over the effective reactance between line ends. This effective reactance is given by It is easy to see that capacitor reduces the effective line reactance. This results in improvement in performance of the system as below. (i) Voltage drop in the […]

Line Compensation

Line Compensation: Line Compensation – Ideal voltage profile for a transmission line is flat, which can only be achieved by loading the line with its surge impedance loading while this may not be achievable, the characteristics of the line can be modified by line compensators so that Ferranti effect is minimized Underexcited operation of synchronous […]

Load Compensation

Load Compensation: Load compensation is the management of reactive power to improve power quality i.e. V profile and pf. Here the reactive power flow is controlled by installing shunt compensating devices (capacitors/reactors) at the load end bringing about proper balance between generated and consumed reactive power. This is most effective in improving the power transfer […]

Loading Capability

Loading Capability: There are three kinds of limitations for loading capability of transmission system: (i) Thermal (ii) Dielectric (iii) Stability Thermal capability of an overhead line is a function of the ambient temperature, wind conditions, conditions of the conductor, and ground clearance. There is a possibility of converting a single-circuit to a double-circuit line to […]

Introduction to Compensation in Power System

Introduction to Compensation in Power System: Introduction to Compensation in Power System – For reduction of cost and improved reliability, most of the world’s electric power systems continue to be interconnected. Interconnections take advantage of diversity of loads, availability of sources and fuel price for supplying power to loads at minimum cost and pollution with […]