Synchronous Modulation and Demodulation

Synchronous Modulation and Demodulation: Synchronous Modulation and Demodulation – Low dc current may be transformed into a high voltage dc by simple chopper action. Although an inductive type transformation process is required, the out­put dc may be obtained without rectifying devices. Figure 14.39 shows a circuit function of a synchronous vibrator. Contacts a and b […]

Self Oscillating Converter

Self Oscillating Converter(Transistorised Chopper Circuit): A Self Oscillating Converter(Transistorised Chopper Circuit) dc to ac converter suitable for low level dc signal is illustrated in Fig. 14.30. The unique property of this assembly is that it starts to oscillate vigorously at very low levels of dc collector voltages at only a few micro-watts of collector power. […]

Differential Instrumentation Amplifier Transducer Bridge

Differential Instrumentation Amplifier Transducer Bridge: Figure 14.25 shows a simplified circuit of a Differential Instrumentation Amplifier Transducer Bridge. In this circuit a resistive transducer (whose resistance changes as a function of some physical energy) is connected to one arm of the bridge. Let RT be the resistance of the transducer and ΔR the change in […]

Instrumentation System

Instrumentation System: Instrumentation System – The measurement and control of physical conditions is very important in many industrial and consumer applications. For example, the operator may make necessary adjustments in the measurement of temperature or humidity inside a dairy or meat plant to maintain the product quality, or to produce a particular type of plastic, […]

Instrumentation Amplifier Derivation

Instrumentation Amplifier Derivation: The schematic diagram of an Instrumentation Amplifier Derivation constructed with dc opamps and consisting of general features is shown in Fig. 14.23 (a). Many of the input specifications of the opamps employed directly determine the input specification of the instrumentation amplifier. An analysis of the circuit of Fig. 14.23 (a) gives the […]

Comparator Op Amp Circuit

Comparator Op Amp Circuit: Comparator Op Amp Circuit – In the opamp applications discussed so far, the amplifiers use negative feedback. Under normal conditions, when negative feedback is used in such a circuit, the amplifier output voltage takes on values between the positive and negative saturation limits. The amplifier has a high gain and negative […]

Differentiator Op Amp

Differentiator Op Amp: A Differentiator Op Amp is a circuit that performs the mathematical operation of differ­entiation. It produces an output voltage proportional to slope of the input volt­age. A common application of a differentiator is the detection of the leading and trailing edges of rectangular pulse. Figure 14.11 shows a basic CR Differentiator Op […]

Operational Amplifier Integrator Circuit

Operational Amplifier Integrator Circuit: An Operational Amplifier Integrator Circuit is a circuit that performs the mathematical operation of integra­tion because it produces an output voltage that is proportional to the integral of the input. The integrator or integration amplifier is shown in Fig. 14.9. A common application is to use a constant input voltage to […]

Inverting Amplifier Circuit Diagram

Inverting Amplifier Circuit Diagram: The Inverting Amplifier Circuit Diagram configuration is shown in Fig. 14.8. The input signal is applied to the inverting terminal. The amplified inverted output is fed back to the inverting input through the resistor RF. The signal fed back is proportional to the output voltage, feedback takes place through RF connected between […]