Atomic Frequency And Time Standards

Atomic Frequency And Time Standards: Atomic Frequency And Time Standards – The measurement of time has two different aspects, civil and scientific. In most scientific work, it is desired to know how long an event lasts, or if dealing with an oscillator, it is desired to know its frequency of oscillation. Thus any time standard […]


Standard: A standard is physical representation of a unit of measurement. A known accurate measure of physical quantity is termed as a standard. These standards are used to determine the values of other physical quantities by the comparison method. In fact, a unit is realized by reference to a material standard or to natural phenomena, […]

Statistical Analysis

Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis of measurement data is important because it allows an analytical determination of the uncertainty of the final test result. To make statistical analysis meaningful, a large number of measurements is usually required. Systematic errors should be small compared to random errors, because statistical analysis of data cannot remove a fixed […]

Dynamic Characteristics

Dynamic Characteristics: Instruments rarely respond instantaneously to changes in the measured variables. Instead, they exhibit slowness or sluggishness due to such things as mass, thermal capacitance, fluid capacitance or electric capacitance. In addition to this, pure delay in time is often encountered where the instrument waits for some reaction to take place. Such industrial instruments […]

Types of Static Error

Types of Static Error: The static error of a measuring instrument is the numerical difference between the true value of a quantity and its value as obtained by measurement, i.e. repeated measurement of the same quantity gives different indications. Types of Static error are categorized as gross errors or human errors, systematic errors, and random […]

Error in Measurement

Error in Measurement: Error in Measurement is the process of comparing an unknown quantity with an accepted standard quantity. It involves connecting a measuring instrument into the system under consideration and observing the resulting response on the instrument. The measurement thus obtained is a quantitative measure of the so┬ácalled “true value” (since it is very […]

Static Characteristics in Instrumentation

Static Characteristics in Instrumentation: The Static Characteristics in Instrumentation are, in general, considered for instruments which are used to measure an unvarying process condition. All the static performance characteristics are obtained by one form or another of a process called calibration. There are a number of related definitions (or characteristics), which are described below, such […]

Introduction to Electronics Instrumentation

Introduction to Electronics Instrumentation: Introduction to Electronics Instrumentation which serves not only science but all branches of engineering, medicine, and almost every human endeavour. The knowledge of any parameter largely depends on the measurement. The indepth knowledge of any parameter can be easily understood by the use of measurement, and further modifications can also be […]