Standard: A standard is physical representation of a unit of measurement. A known accurate measure of physical quantity is termed as a standard. These standards are used to determine the values of other physical quantities by the comparison method. In fact, a unit is realized by reference to a material standard or to natural phenomena, […]

Statistical Analysis

Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis of measurement data is important because it allows an analytical determination of the uncertainty of the final test result. To make statistical analysis meaningful, a large number of measurements is usually required. Systematic errors should be small compared to random errors, because statistical analysis of data cannot remove a fixed […]

Dynamic Characteristics

Dynamic Characteristics: Instruments rarely respond instantaneously to changes in the measured variables. Instead, they exhibit slowness or sluggishness due to such things as mass, thermal capacitance, fluid capacitance or electric capacitance. In addition to this, pure delay in time is often encountered where the instrument waits for some reaction to take place. Such industrial instruments […]

Types of Static Error

Types of Static Error: The static error of a measuring instrument is the numerical difference between the true value of a quantity and its value as obtained by measurement, i.e. repeated measurement of the same quantity gives different indications. Types of Static error are categorized as gross errors or human errors, systematic errors, and random […]

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