Energy Losses in Electrical Drive System:
Energy conservation in electrical drive is achieved by reduction of losses in its various parts. Typical Energy Losses in Electrical Drive System include the following:
1. Electrical transmission losses: These losses depend on the drive power factor and harmonics in the line current.
2. Conversion losses in the power modulator (or converter): The semi-conductor converter usually has low conversion losses.
3. Electric motor losses to convert electric power into mechanical power: These are determined by choice of motor (quality of its design and selection of right rating) and quality of supply (voltage variations, unbalance, frequency variations and harmonics).
4. Mechanical losses in the parts of the transmission system such as bearings, gears, clutches and belts.
5. Losses in the load: Load is a machine required to perform a specified task such as fan, pump and train.
6. Losses caused by throttling or by other means that control material flow by absorbing or bypassing excess output.
7. Mechanical transmission losses, such as friction losses to move material from one location to another. Losses in pipe line carrying fluid is one such example.
The efficient operation of an electrical drive, with minimum consumption of energy, requires that the drive and the driven machinery (or load) operate efficiently. This calls for careful design of both electrical and mechanical systems. Only those measures are considered here which can lead to efficient operation of electrical drive systems.