**Optimal System:**

**Derivation of Transmission Loss Formula**** :** Derivation of Transmission Loss Formula – An accurate method of obtaining a general formula for transmission loss has been given by Kron. This, however, is quite complicated. The aim of this article is to give a simpler derivation by making certain assumptions. Figure 7.9 (c) depicts the …

**Introduction to Optimal System Operation :** The optimal system operation, in general, involved the consideration of economy of operation, system security, emissions at certain fossil-fuel plants, optimal releases of water at hydro generation, etc. All these considerations may make for conflicting requirements and usually a compromise has to be made for optimal …

**Optimal Load Flow Solution**** :** The problem of optimal real power dispatch has been treated in the earlier section using the approximate loss formula. This section presents the more general problem of real and reactive power flow so as to minimize the instantaneous operating costs. It is a static optimization problem with …

**Optimal Operations of Generators on a Bus Bar**** :** Optimal Operations of Generators on a Bus Bar – The major component of generator operating cost is the fuel input/hour, while maintenance contributes only to a small extent. The fuel cost is meaningful in case of thermal and nuclear stations, but for hydro …

**Optimal Scheduling of Hydrothermal System**** :** The previous sections have dealt with the problem of optimal scheduling of a power system with thermal plants only. Optimal operating policy in this case can be completely determined at any instant without reference to operation at other times. This, indeed, is the static optimization problem. …

**Optimal Unit Commitment**** (UC):** As is evident, it is not economical to run all the units available all the time. To determine the units of a plant that should operate for a particular load is the problem of unit commitment (UC). This problem is of importance for thermal plants as for other …

**Optimum Generation Scheduling**** :** Optimum Generation Scheduling – From the unit commitment table of a given plant, the fuel cost curve of the plant can be determined in the form of a polynomial of suitable degree by the method of least squares fit. If the transmission losses are neglected, the total system …

**Reliability Considerations**** :** With the increasing dependence of industry, agriculture and day-to-day household comfort upon the continuity of electric supply, the Reliability Calculation of power systems has assumed great importance. Every electric utility is normally under obligation to provide to its consumers a certain degree of continuity and quality of service (e.g. …