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Frequency Generating Transducer

Frequency Generating Transducer: Frequency Generating Transducer – Unlike variable parameter analog transducers, frequency and pulse generating transducers measure physical variables in terms of a pulse repetition rate. Since frequency is an analog quantity, these can be treated as either analog or digital devices. Therefore, any phenomenon to be measured is converted into a corresponding rate …

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Platinum Thin Film RTD Sensors

Platinum Thin Film RTD Sensors: Platinum Thin Film RTD Sensors are manufactured by a very thin layer of platinum in suitable pattern to achieve smaller dimension and higher resistance, on a ceramic base. The deposition of layers and introduction of patterns are obtained using different methods. Normally, a number of such chips are manufactured on …

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Phototransistor Construction and Working Principle

Phototransistor Construction and Working Principle: The sensitivity of a photo diode can be increased by as much as 100 times by adding a junction, resulting in an NPN device. A simple representation of the Phototransistor Construction is shown in Fig. 13.36. Illumination of the central region causes the release of electron hole pairs. This lowers …

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Photovoltaic Cell Working Principle and Types of Photovoltaic Cells

Photovoltaic Cell Working Principle and Types of Photovoltaic Cells: The Photovoltaic Cell Working Principle or solar cell, produces an electrical current when connected to a load. Both silicon (Si) and selenium (Se) types are known for these purposes. Multiple unit silicon photo-voltaic devices may be used for sensing light in applications such as reading punched …

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Measurements of Thickness using Beta Gauge

Measurements of Thickness using Beta Gauge: Beta Gauge – A common and characteristic feature of a radioactive element is that they disintegrate spontaneously to produce fresh radioactive elements called daughter elements. This activity of parent elements is termed as radioactivity. During this disintegration, high energy radiations are emitted from the nuclear of the radioactive element. …

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Magnetic Flow Meters

Magnetic Flow Meters: Magnetic Flow Meters are the first type of flowmeters to be considered for high corrosive applications and for applications involving measurement of erosive slurries. These meters work on the principle of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, which states that whenever a conductor moves through a magnetic field of given field strength, a …

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Flow Measurement (Mechanical Transducers)

Flow Measurement (Mechanical Transducers): The measurement of flow rate and quantity is the oldest of all measurements of process variables in the field of instrumentation. It is used to determine the amount of materials flowing in or out of a process. Without flow measurement, plant material balancing, quality control and the operation of any continuous …

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Ultrasonic Transducer

Ultrasonic Transducer: Ultrasonic Transducer (sound vibrations above 20 kHz) are useful when we are concerned with rapid temperature fluctuations, temperature extremes, limited access, nuclear or other severe environmental requirements and measurement of temperature distribution inside solid bodies. They may be used to measure the distribution of parameters other than temperature (example flow). Ultrasonics also offers …

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