# Digital Instruments

Decade Counter Circuit: A Decade Counter Circuit is of flip-flops (F/Fs) in cascade, which counts in the base 10 (decimal number system). This means that there is a sequence of ten distinct counts in increasing order. Three F/Fs used in cascade progress through 8 distinct counts (binary numbers from 000 to 111), while 4 F/Fs …

## Universal Counter Timer

Universal Counter Timer: All measurements of time period and frequency by various circuits can be assembled together to form one complete block, called a Universal Counter Timer. The universal counter uses logic gates which are selected and controlled by a single front panel switch, known as the function switch. A simplified block diagram is shown …

## Digital Measurement of Time

Digital Measurement of Time: Principle of Operation of Digital Measurement of Time – The beginning of the time period is the start pulse originating from input 1, and the end of the time period is the stop pulse coming from input 2. The oscillator runs continuously, but the oscillator pulses reach the output only during …

## Digital Frequency Meter

Digital Frequency Meter: Principle of Operation of Digital Frequency Meter – The signal waveform is converted to trigger pulses and applied continuously to an AND gate, as shown in Fig. 6.4. A pulse of 1 s is applied to the other terminal, and the number of pulses counted during this period indicates the frequency. The …

## Working Principle of Digital Multimeter

Working Principle of Digital Multimeter: Analog meters require no power supply, they give a better visual indication of changes and suffer less from electric noise and isolation problems. These meters are simple and inexpensive. Digital meters, on the other hand, offer high accuracy, have a high input impedance and are smaller in size. They gives …

## What is a Digital Instrument?

What is a Digital Instrument?: Digital instrument are rapidly replacing their analog counterparts. The parameters of interest in a laboratory environment are (i) voltage (ii) current (iii) power (iv) frequency, and (v) logic. We shall consider digital systems which measure the above parameters. To enable digital systems to recognize information, inputs which are analog in …

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