Representation of Loads

Representation of Loads: Representation of Loads – Load drawn by consumers is the toughest parameter to assess scientifically. The magnitude of the load, in fact, changes continuously so that the load forecasting problem is truly a statistical one. A typical daily load curve is shown in Fig. 1.1. The loads are generally composed of industrial […]

Salient Pole Synchronous Generator

Salient Pole Synchronous Generator: A Salient Pole Synchronous Generator, as shown in Fig. 4.29, is distinguished from a round rotor machine by constructional features of field poles which project with a large interpolar air gap. This type of construction is commonly employed in machines coupled to hydroelectric turbines which are inherently slow-speed ones so that […]

Synchronous Machine Phasor Diagram

Synchronous Machine Phasor Diagram: The Synchronous Machine Phasor Diagram is the most important element of a power system. It converts mechanical power into electrical form and feeds it into the power network or, in the case of a motor, it draws electrical power from the network and converts it into the mechanical form. The machine […]

Complex Power Derivation

Complex Power Derivation: Complex Power Derivation – Consider a single-phase load fed from a source as in Fig. 4.9. Let When θ  is positive, the current lags behind voltage. This is a convenient choice of sign of θ in power systems where loads have mostly lagging power factors. Complex power flow in the direction of […]

Per Unit System Definition

Per Unit System Definition: Per Unit System Definition- It is usual to express voltage, current, voltamperes and impedance of an electrical circuit in per unit (or percentage) of base or reference values of these quantities. The Per Unit System Definition value of any quantity is defined as: The Per Unit System Definition method is particularly […]

Power System Impedance Diagram

Power System Impedance Diagram: Power System Impedance Diagram – A one-line diagram of a power system shows the main connections and arrangements of components. Any particular component may or may not be shown depending on the information required in a system study, e.g. circuit breakers need not be shown in a load flow study but […]

Balanced Three Phase Network

Balanced Three Phase Network: The solution of a Balanced Three Phase Network under balanced conditions is easily carried out by solving the single-phase network corresponding to the reference phase. Figure 4.1 shows a Single Phase Solution of Balanced Three Phase Networks. The generator and load neutrals are therefore at the same potential, so that In […]