## Band Stop Filter

Band Stop Filter: Band Stop Filter stop a range of frequencies between two cut-off frequencies f1 and f2 while pass all the frequencies below f1 and above f2. Thus range of frequencies between f1 and f2 constitutes a stop band in which attenuation to the frequencies is infinite ideally. The frequencies below f1 and above […]

## Band Pass Filter

Band Pass Filter: Band pass filter pass a certain range of frequencies (called as pass band) while attenuate all other frequencies. Such band pass filters can be obtained by connecting low pass filter sections in cascade with high pass filter sections as shown in Fig. 9.15. In above type of connection, the cut-off frequency of […]

## High Pass Filter

High Pass Filter: The prototype high pass filter T and π sections are as shown in the Fig. 9.9. Design Impedance (R0): Total series arm impedance Z1 = -j/ωC Total shunt arm impedance Z2 = jωL Hence, Z1 . Z2 =(-j/ωC) (jωL) = L/C which is real and constant. Hence above sections are constant K sections. So we […]

## Low Pass Filter

Low Pass Filter: The prototype T and π low pass filter sections are as shown in the Fig. 9.3. Design Impedance (R0): Here in low pass filter sections, Total series arm impedance Z1 = jωL Total shunt arm impedance Z2 = -j/ωC Hence, Z1 . Z2 = (jωL) (-j/ωC) = L/C which is real and constant. Hence sections […]

## Filter Fundamentals in Network Analysis

Filter Fundamentals in Network Analysis: Filter Fundamentals in Network Analysis – The complete study of behavior of any filter section needs calculations of its characteristic impedance (Z0), propagation constant (γ), attenuation constant (α) and phase constant (β), using advanced mathematical calculations at any frequency. However we can easily predict pass band and stop band of […]

## Ideal Filter Characteristics

Ideal Filter Characteristics: Ideal Filter Characteristics – The range of frequencies over which attenuation by filter is zero is called pass band. The range of frequencies over which attenuation is infinite is called stop band or attenuation band of the filter. The frequencies which separate the pass band from attenuation or stop band are called […]