VOLTMETERS & MULTIMETERS

Multirange Ohmmeter

Multirange Ohmmeter: The Multirange Ohmmeter circuit shown in Fig. 4.28 (a) is only for a single range of resistance measurement. To measure resistance over a wide range of values, we need to extend the ohmmeter ranges. This type of ohmmeter is called a multirange ohmmeter, shown in Fig. 4.29.   Shunt Type Ohmmeter The shunt […]

Series Type Ohmmeter

Series Type Ohmmeter: Series Type Ohmmeter – A D’ Arsonval movement is connected in series with a resistance R1 and a battery which is connected to a pair of terminals A and B, across which the unknown resistance is connected. This forms the basic type of series ohmmeter, as shown in Fig. 4.28 (a). The […]

Considerations in Choosing an Analog Voltmeter

Considerations in Choosing an Analog Voltmeter: In Considerations in Choosing an Analog Voltmeter the following factors are to be considered. Input Impedance The input impedance or resistance of the voltmeter should be as high as possible. It should always be higher than the impedance of the circuit under measurement to avoid the loading effect, discussed […]

True RMS Voltmeter

True RMS Voltmeter: True RMS Voltmeter – Complex waveform are most accurately measured with an rms voltmeter. This instrument produces a meter indication by sensing waveform heating power, which is proportional to the square of the rms value of the voltage. This heating power can be measured by amplifying and feeding it to a thermocouple, […]

Average Responding Voltmeter

Average Responding Voltmeter: A simplified version of a circuit used in a typical average responding voltmeter is given in Fig. 4.23. The applied waveform is amplified in a high gain stabilised amplifier to a reasonably high level and then rectified and fed to a dc mA meter calibrated in terms of rms input voltage. In […]

AC Voltmeter using Half wave Rectifier

AC Voltmeter using Half wave Rectifier: AC Voltmeter using Half wave Rectifier – If a diode D1 is added to the dc voltmeter, as shown in Fig. 4.18, we have an ac voltmeter using half wave rectifier circuit capable of measuring ac voltages. The sensitivity of the dc voltmeter is given by A multiple of […]

AC Voltmeter using Rectifiers

AC Voltmeter using Rectifiers: AC Voltmeter using Rectifiers – Rectifier type instruments generally use a PMMC movement along with a rectifier arrangement. Silicon diodes are preferred because of their low reverse current and high forward current ratings. Figure 4.16 (a) gives an ac voltmeter circuit consisting of a multiplier, a bridge rectifier and a PMMC […]

DC Standard Difference Voltmeter

DC Standard Difference Voltmeter: DC Standard Difference Voltmeter – A basic dc standard differential voltmeter can be operated in different modes. The three basic modes of operation are (i) as a dc voltage standard, (ii) as a dc differential voltmeter, and (iii) as a dc voltmeter (conventional). 1.DC Voltage Standard A + 1 V dc […]

Differential Voltmeter

Differential Voltmeter: The Differential Voltmeter technique, is one of the most common and accurate methods of measuring unknown voltages. In this technique, the voltmeter is used to indicate the difference between known and unknown voltages, i.e., an unknown voltage is compared to a known voltage. Figure 4.14 (a) shows a basic circuit of a differential […]

Chopper type DC Amplifier Voltmeter

Chopper type DC Amplifier Voltmeter(Microvoltmeter): Chopper type DC Amplifier Voltmeter the dc input voltage is converted into an ac voltage, amplified by an ac amplifier and then converted back into a dc voltage proportional to the original input signal. The balanced bridge voltmeter has limitations caused by drift problems in dc amplifier. Any fluctuations of […]

Transistor Voltmeter

Transistor Voltmeter(TVM): Transistor Voltmeter – Direct coupled amplifiers are economical and hence used widely in general purpose low priced VTVM’ s. Figure 4.9 gives a simplified schematic diagram of a dc coupled amplifier with an indicating meter. The dc input is applied to a range attenuator to provide input voltage levels which can be accommodated […]

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