## Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Waves

Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Waves: Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Waves are energy propagated through free space at the velocity of light, which is approximately 300 meters per microsecond. As the object travelled downward,…

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## External Noise in Communication System

External Noise in Communication System: The various forms of External Noise in Communication System created outside the receiver are namely 1. Atmospheric Noise, 2. Extraterrestrial Noise, Solar noise Cosmic noise…

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## Measuring Instruments in Electronic Instrumentation Articles

Measuring Instruments in Electronic Instrumentation Articles: Output Power Meter Working Principle: The Output Power Meter Working Principle is designed to directly measure the output power in an arbitrary load. The…

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## Measurement Set Up in Electronic Instrumentation Articles

Measurement Set Up in Electronic Instrumentation Articles: Microwave Power Measurement Techniques: Microwave Power Measurement Techniques can be done by the use of wavemeters. A wavemeter is an adjustable resonant circuit…

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## Switching Surges in Transmission Line

Switching Surges in Transmission Line: Till the time when the transmission voltages were about 220 kV and below, over-voltages due to lightning were of very high order and overvoltages generated…

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## Mathematical Model of Lightning Stroke

Mathematical Model of Lightning Stroke: During the charge formation process, the cloud may be considered to be a non­conductor. Hence, various potentials may be assumed at different parts of the…

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## Measurement of High Direct Current

Measurement of High Direct Current: High magnitude direct currents are measured using a resistive shunt of low ohmic value. The voltage drop across the resistance is measured with a millivoltmeter.…

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## Pure Liquids and Commercial Liquids

Pure Liquids and Commercial Liquids: Pure liquids are those which are chemically pure and do not contain any other impurity even in traces of 1 in I09, and are structurally…

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