Category: MEASUREMENT OF POWER

Analog Electronics Process Controllers

Analog Electronics Process Controllers: An Analog Electronics Process Controllers must be capable of providing one or more of the three main methods of control, namely, Proportional, Integral and Derivative. The circuits described in this section use high gain OPAMP’S with specially designed feedback circuits. They operate with their phase inverting input as a virtual earth […]

Proportional Controller

Proportional Controller: In many processes, the cycling that occurs with the two position ON—OFF control is undesirable. Steady process controlled in the absence of noises, is possible when the controlled variable is a continuous function of the error. A most widely used form of continuous control mode is the proportional control action, in which a […]

On Off Controller

On Off Controller or Two Position Controller: The On Off Controller or two position controller is the simplest, cheapest and the most used controllers. It is used in domestic heating systems, refrigeration, water tanks, etc. When the measured variable is below the set point, the controller is ON and the output signal has maximum value. […]

Step Function Response

Step Function Response: The step function response consists of applying an instantaneous change in the control means and then recording graphically the result of the change on the measured variable. This graphical record obtained in response to the step excitation is called the Process Reaction curve. Two typical process reaction curves are shown in Fig. […]

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