# Automation Generation

## Decentralized Control System Definition and Techniques

Decentralized Control System Definition and Techniques: Decentralized Control System – In view of the large size of a modern power system, it is virtually impossible to implement either the classical or the modern LFC algorithm in a centralized manner. In Fig. 8.24, a Decentralized Control scheme is shown. x1 is used to find out the […]

## Discrete Time Control System

Discrete Time Control System: The Discrete Time Control System is described by a set of linear differential equations where x, u, p are state, control and disturbance vectors respectively and A,B and Γ are constant matrices associated with the above vectors. The discrete-time behavior of the continuous-time system is modelled by the system of first

## Speed Governor Dead Band and its Effect on AGC

Speed Governor Dead Band and its Effect on AGC: The effect of the Speed Governor Dead Band is that for a given position of the governor control valves, an increase/decrease in speed can occur before the position of the valve changes. The governor dead-band can materially affect the system response. In AGC studies, the dead-band

## Load Frequency Control with Generation Rate Constraint (GRC)

Load Frequency Control with Generation Rate Constraint (GRC): Load Frequency Control with Generation Rate Constraint (GRC) – The Load frequency Control problem discussed so far does not consider the effect of the restrictions on the rate of change of power generation. In power systems having steam plants, power generation can change only at a specified

## Automatic Voltage Control

Automatic Voltage Control: Automatic Voltage Control – Figure 8.20 gives the schematic diagram of an automatic voltage regulator of a generator. It basically consists of a main exciter which excites the alternator field to control the output voltage. The exciter field is automatically controlled through error e = Vref – VT, suitably amplified through voltage

## Optimal Two Area Load Frequency Control

Optimal Two Area Load Frequency Control: Modern control theory is applied in this section to design an Optimal Two Area Load Frequency Control for a two-area system. In accordance with modem control terminology ΔPc1 and ΔPC2 will be referred to as control inputs u1 and u2. In the conventional approach u1 and u2 were provided

## Two Area Load Frequency Control

Two Area Load Frequency Control: Two Area Load Frequency Control – An extended power system can be divided into a number of Two Area Load Frequency Control areas interconnected by means of tie lines. Without loss of generality we shall consider a two-area case connected by a single tie line as illustrated in Fig. 8.13.

## Load frequency Control and Economic Dispatch Control

Load frequency Control and Economic Dispatch Control: Load frequency control with integral controller achieves zero steady state frequency error and a fast dynamic response, but it exercises no control over the relative loadings of various generating stations (i.e. economic dispatch) of the control area. For example, if a sudden small increase in load (say, 1%)

## Proportional Plus Integral Control

Proportional Plus Integral Control: Proportional Plus Integral Control – It is seen from the earlier discussion that with the speed governing system installed on each machine, the steady load frequency characteristic for a given speed changer setting has considerable droop, e.g. for the system being used for the illustration above, the steady state droop in

## Load Frequency Control of Isolated Power System

Load Frequency Control of Isolated Power System: To obtain the dynamic response of Load Frequency Control of Isolated Power System giving the change in frequency as function of the time for a step change in load, we must obtain the Laplace inverse of Eq. (8.14). The characteristic equation being of third order, dynamic response can

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