Decentralized Control System: In view of the large size of a modern power system, it is virtually impossible to implement either the classical or the modern LFC algorithm in a centralized manner. In Fig. 8.24, a Decentralized Control System scheme is shown. x1 is used to find out the vector u1 while x2 alone is […]

### Category: Automation Generation

## Continuous Time System

Continuous Time System: In recent years, increasingly more attention is being paid to the question of digital implementation of the automatic generation control algorithms This is mainly due to the facts that digital control turns out to be more accurate and reliable, compact in size, less sensitive to noise and drift and more flexible. It […]

## Speed Governor Dead Band

Speed Governor Dead Band and its Effect on AGC: The effect of the Speed Governor Dead Band is that for a given position of the governor control valves, an increase/decrease in speed can occur before the position of the valve changes. The governor dead-band can materially affect the system response. In AGC studies, the dead-band […]

## Appropriate Generation Rate Constraint

Appropriate Generation Rate Constraint: The Load frequency Control with Appropriate Generation Rate Constraint problem discussed so far does not consider the effect of the restrictions on the rate of change of power generation. In power systems having steam plants, power generation can change only at a specified maximum rate. The Appropriate Generation Rate Constraint (from […]

## Automatic Voltage Control

Automatic Voltage Control: Automatic Voltage Control – Figure 8.20 gives the schematic diagram of an automatic voltage regulator of a generator. It basically consists of a main exciter which excites the alternator field to control the output voltage. The exciter field is automatically controlled through error e = Vref – VT suitably amplified through voltage […]

## Optimal Two Area Load Frequency Control

Optimal Two Area Load Frequency Control: Modern control theory is applied in this section to design an Optimal Two Area Load Frequency Control for a two-area system. In accordance with modem control terminology ΔPc1 and ΔPC2 will be referred to as control inputs u1 and u2. In the conventional approach u1 and u2 were provided […]

## Two Area Load Frequency Control

Two Area Load Frequency Control: Two Area Load Frequency Control – An extended power system can be divided into a number of Two Area Load Frequency Control areas interconnected by means of tie lines. Without loss of generality we shall consider a two-area case connected by a single tie line as illustrated in Fig. 8.13. […]

## Load frequency Control and Economic Dispatch Control

Load frequency Control and Economic Dispatch Control: Load frequency Control and Economic Dispatch Control – Load frequency control with integral controller achieves zero steady state frequency error and a fast dynamic response, but it exercises no control over the relative loadings of various generating stations (i.e. economic dispatch) of the control area. For example, if […]

## Proportional Plus Integral Control

Proportional Plus Integral Control: Proportional Plus Integral Control – It is seen from the earlier discussion that with the speed governing system installed on each machine, the steady load frequency characteristic for a given speed changer setting has considerable droop, e.g. for the system being used for the illustration above, the steady state droop in […]

## Load Frequency Control of Isolated Power System

Load Frequency Control of Isolated Power System: To obtain the dynamic response of Load Frequency Control of Isolated Power System giving the change in frequency as function of the time for a step change in load, we must obtain the Laplace inverse of Eq. (8.14). The characteristic equation being of third order, dynamic response can […]