Load Forecasting Techniques in Power System

Load Forecasting Techniques in Power System: As power plant planning and construction require a gestation period of four to eight years or even longer for the present day super power stations, energy and load demand forecasting plays a crucial role in power system studies. This necessitates long range forecasting. While sophisticated probabilistic methods exist in …

Diversity Factor in Power System

Diversity Factor in Power System: Diversity Factor in Power System is defined as the sum of individual maximum demands on the consumers, divided by the maximum load on the system. This factor gives the time diversification of the load and is used to decide the installation of sufficient generating and transmission plant. If all the …

Introduction to Modern Power System Planning

Introduction to Modern Power System Planning: In Modern Power System Planning, electric energy is an essential ingredient for the industrial and all-round development of any country. It is a coveted form of energy, because it can be generated centrally in bulk and transmitted economically over long distances. Further, it can be adapted easily and efficiently …

Atomic frequency standards and clocks

Atomic frequency standards and clocks: Atomic frequency standards and clocks – The measurement of time has two different aspects, civil and scientific. In most scientific work, it is desired to know how long an event lasts, or if dealing with an oscillator, it is desired to know its frequency of oscillation. Thus any time standard …

Different Types of Standards of Measurement

Different Types of Standards of Measurement: A standard is physical representation of a unit of measurement. A known accurate measure of physical quantity is termed as a standard. These Standards of Measurement are used to determine the values of other physical quantities by the comparison method. In fact, a unit is realized by reference to …

Statistical Analysis of Measurement Data

Statistical Analysis of Measurement Data: The statistical analysis of measurement data is important because it allows an analytical determination of the uncertainty of the final test result. To make statistical analysis meaningful, a large number of measurements is usually required. Systematic errors should be small compared to random errors, because Statistical Analysis of Measurement Data …

Dynamic Characteristics in Qualities of Measurement

Dynamic Characteristics: Instruments rarely respond instantaneously to changes in the measured variables. Instead, they exhibit slowness or sluggishness due to such things as mass, thermal capacitance, fluid capacitance or electric capacitance. In addition to this, pure delay in time is often encountered where the instrument waits for some reaction to take place. Such industrial instruments …

Types of Static Error and Sources of Error

Types of Static Error: The static error of a measuring instrument is the numerical difference between the true value of a quantity and its value as obtained by measurement, i.e. repeated measurement of the same quantity gives different indications. Types of Static Errors are categorized as gross errors or human errors, systematic errors, and random …

Errors in Measurement

Errors in Measurement: Errors in Measurement is the process of comparing an unknown quantity with an accepted standard quantity. It involves connecting a measuring instrument into the system under consideration and observing the resulting response on the instrument. The measurement thus obtained is a quantitative measure of the so called “true value” (since it is very difficult …

Static Characteristics of Measuring Instruments

Static Characteristics of Measuring Instruments: The Static Characteristics of Measuring Instruments are, in general, considered for instruments which are used to measure an unvarying process condition. All the static performance characteristics are obtained by one form or another of a process called calibration. There are a number of related definitions (or characteristics), which are described …