IC Fabrication

IC Fabrication:

Diode Fabrication Process and Packaging : Alloy and Diffused Diodes – Two commonly used techniques for Diode Fabrication Process and Packaging are the alloy method and the diffusion method. To construct an alloy diode, a pn-junction is formed by melting a tiny pellet of aluminum (or some other p-type impurity) on the surface of an n-type crystal. Alternatively, an n-type impurity may be melted on the surface of a p-type crystal The …


Integrated Circuit Components : The Integrated Circuit Components are namely, Transistors and Diodes: The epitaxial planar diffusion process described already is normally employed for the manufacture of IC transistors and diodes. Collector, base, and emitter regions are diffused into a silicon substrate and surface terminals are provided for connection, as illustrated in Fig. 7-20(a). In discrete transistors the substrate is normally used as a collector. If this were done with transistors in a monolithic integrated circuit, …


Integrated Circuits Fabrication Process : IC Types – An Integrated Circuits Fabrication Process consists of several interconnected transistors, resistors, etc., all contained in one small package with external connecting terminals. The circuit may be entirely self-contained, requiring only input and output connections and a supply voltage. Alternatively, a few external components may have to be connected to make the circuit operate. Integrated Circuits Fabrication Process may be classified in terms of their function …


Processing of Semiconductor Materials : Preparation of Silicon and Germanium – Silicon is one of the commonest elements on earth. It occurs as silicon dioxide (SiO2) and as silicates; mixtures of silicon and other materials. Germanium is derived from zinc or copper ores. When converted to bulk metal, silicon and germanium contain large quantities of impurities. Both metals must be carefully refined before they can be used for semiconductor device manufacture. Processing of …


Transistor Construction Techniques and Performance : The following are Transistor Construction Techniques and Performance are as follows, Current Gain: Good current gain requires that most charge carriers from the emitter pass rapidly to the collector. So, there should be little outflow of charge carriers via the base terminal, and there should be few carrier re-combinations within the base. These conditions dictate a very narrow, lightly doped, base, (see Fig. 7-8). High Power: Another Transistor Construction Techniques …


Transistor Fabrication Techniques : Different Transistor Fabrication Techniques are namely Alloy Transistor Micro Alloy Transistor Microalloy Diffused Transistor Diffuse Mesa Transistor Epitaxial Mesa Transistors Diffused Planar Transistor Annular Transistor 1. Alloy Transistor: For manufacture of alloy Transistor Fabrication Techniques, single-crystal n-type wafers are scribed into many small sections, or dice, each of which forms the substrate for one transistor. A small pellet of p-type material is melted on one surface of each section until it partially penetrates and forms an alloy …