TQM Principles Interview Questions and Answers:

1. What is meant by customer retention?

Ans. Customer retention means retaining the customer to support the business. Customer retention is more powerful and effective than customer satisfaction. Customer retention requires the activities which produce the necessary customer satisfaction and creates customer loyalty.

2. What are the different types of motivation?


a) Extrinsic motivation – Extrinsic motivation is concerned with external motivators such as pay, promotion….etc. which are associated with financial regards.
b) Intrinsic motivation – Intrinsic motivation is concerned with psychology such as praise, responsibility, recognition etc. which are associated with non-financial rewards.

3. Name different theories of motivation?


  • Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs
  • McGregor’s theory and theory Y
  • Hertzberg’s two factor theory

4. Write about quality circles?

Ans. Quality control circles – simply quality circles – are small groups of employees from one work unit who voluntarily meet together regularly to identify, analyze and solve product quality, production problems and to improve general operations within their area. Quality circle shifts the problem solving responsibility to those on factory floor, who are close to the problems.

5. Define recognition and regard.

Ans. Recognition is a process by which management shows acknowledgement of an employee’s outstanding performance. To sustain employee’s interests and to propel them towards continuous improvements, it is necessary to recognize the good work financially (or) psychologically (or) in both ways. Recognition can be expressed using verbal and written praise. Rewards may be in the form of certificates and plaques. Reward is normally in the form of theater tickets, dinner for family, a cash award to promote desirable behavior.

6. What is the use of performance appraisal?

Ans. The performance appraisal is used to let employees know they are performing. The performance appraisal becomes a basis for promotions, salary increases, counseling and other purposes related to an employee’s future.

7. Name different approaches towards continuous process improvement?


  • Juran trilogy
  • Plan-do-study act (PDCA) cycle
  • 5S
  • Kaizen

8. What are the three components of juran trilogy?


  • Planning
  • Control
  • Improvement

9. Explain 5S practice?

Ans. 5S is the key for total quality environment. The 5S practice is a technique used to establish and maintain quality environment in an organization.

10. Define kaizen?

Ans. Kaizen is a Japanese word which means small but continuous improvement. It means ongoing improvement involving everyone including managers and workers.

11. What is meant by supplier partnership?

Ans. Organizations have realized that suppliers are on more external entities but a part of their business process. To obtain high quality products and services, the suppliers should be treated as partners to achieve the same quality level as attained within the organization.

12. What is meant by just-in-time?

Ans. Under the just-in-time inventory concept, goods are received from suppliers only in limited quantity and at the time that they are needed for production. The buyer stocks no inventories.

13. What are the disadvantages of having excess inventories?

Ans. The presence of excess inventory increases the risk of obsolescence and deterioration, increases the need for warehouse and shop-floor space and encourages a number of waste full practices.

14. What are the seven wastages mentioned by shigeo shingo?


  • Waste of over production
  • Waste of waiting
  • Waste of transportation
  • Waste of processing itself
  • Waste of stocks
  • Waste of motion
  • Waste of making defective products

15. What are the three factors for a company to maintain supply chain development?


  • Zero defects
  • 100% on-time delivery
  • process for continuous improvement

16. Define partnering?

Ans. Partnering is a relationship between two (or) more parties based upon trust, dedication to common goals ad objectives and an understanding of each participant’s expectations and values.

17. What are the three types of sourcing?


  • Sole source of supply
  • Multiple sourcing
  • Single sourcing

18. What are the six techniques for presenting performance measures?


  • Time series graph
  • Control chart
  • Capability index
  • Taguchi’s quality loss function
  • Cost of poor quality
  • Malcolm balridge national quality award

19. What are the objectives we can achieve using performance measure?

Ans. Performance measures are used to achieve following objectives

  • Establish baseline measure and reveal trends.
  • Determine which processes need to be improved.
  • Compare goals with actual performances.
  • Provide information for individual and team evaluation.
  • Determine the overall performance of the organization.

20. What is Malcolm baldrige national award?

Ans. It is an annual award to recognize U.S organization for performance excellence, the award promotes: understanding of the requirements of performance excellence and competitiveness improvement. Sharing of information on successful performance strategies, and the benefits derived from using these strategies.

21. What are the criteria for performance excellence?

Ans. The criteria for performance excellence are the basis for making awards and for giving feedback to applicants. In addition, help improve performance practices and capabilities, facilitate communication and sharing of best practice information among U.S organization of all types, and serve as working tools for understanding and managing performance, planning, training, and assessment.

22. What is self-evaluation?

Ans. It consists of a series of statements, organized into the major categories of the baldrige award criteria. Use subjective judgment to grade how well our organization conforms to the criteria by assigning a numerical rating from 1 to 10. The scores in each category are added and normalized. For ex. The five leadership items grade total to 32 out of 50. Therefore the category score is 32/50*110=70, the score which is used to monitor the status of the quality management program.

23. What are the principles of customers, supplier relation?


Both the customer and the suppliers are fully responsible for the control of quality. The customer is responsible for providing the supplier with clear and sufficient requirements so that the supplier can know precisely what to produce.
Both the customer and the supplier should enter into a non-adversarial contract with respect to quality, quantity, price, delivery method, and terms of payments.

24. What is meant by partnering?

Ans. Partnering is a long-term commitment between two or more organization for the purpose of achieving specific business goals and objectives by maximizing the effectiveness of each participant’s resources. The relationship is based upon trust, dedication to common goals and objectives and an understanding of each participant’s expectations and values.

25. What are the different types of partnering?

Ans. There are three types of partnering,

  • Long- term commitment
  • Trust
  • Shared vision

26. What are the different types of sourcing?

Ans. There are three types of sourcing,

  • Sole
  • Multiple
  • Single.

27. What is sole source?

Ans. A sole source of supply implies that the organization is forced to use only one supplier. This situation is due to factors such as patents, technical specification, raw materials location, only one organization producing the item.

28. What is multiple sourcing?

Ans. Multiple sourcing is the use of two or more suppliers for an item. Usually three suppliers are chosen, and their portion of the business is a function of their performance in terms of price, quality and delivery. Its theory is competition will result in better quality, lower costs, and better service.

29. What is single sourcing?

Ans. Single sourcing is a planned decision by the organization to select one supplier for an item when several sources are available. It results in large, long-term contracts and a partnering relationship.

30. What are the conditions for selection and evaluation of suppliers for outsourcing?

Ans. The supplier understands and appreciates the management’s philosophy of the organization. The supplier maintains high technical standards and has the capability of dealing with future technological innovations. There is no danger of the supplier breaching corporate secrets.

31. What are the key factors for a successful supplier rating systems?

Ans. A supplier rating system is usually based on quality, delivery, and service. An internal structure to implement and sustain the rating program, and a regular and formal review process a standard measurements system for all suppliers need to be established.

32. What is inspection?

Ans. The goal of inspection is to eliminate, substantially reduce, or automatic the inspection activity. There are four phases of inspection 100% inspection Sampling

  • Audit
  • Identity check

33. What is PDSA cycle?

Ans. The basic Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle is an effective improvement technique. The first step is plan what is to be done, next to carry out the plan, then to study the result and finally act on the result by identifying what worked as planned and what didn’t. the PDSA cycle is a simple adaptation of the more elaborate problem-solving method.

34. What are the phases in problem- solving method according to PDSA cycle?


  1. Identify the opportunity
  2. Analyze the process
  3. Develop the optimal solution
  • Implement
  • Study the results
  • Standardize the solution
  • Plan for the future

35. What is long – term commitment?

Ans. Long term commitment provides the needed environment for both parties to work towards continuous improvement. There must be total organizational involvement from the CEO to the workers. Each party contributes its unique strengths to the processes.

36. What is trust?

Ans. Trust enables the resources and knowledge of each partner to be combined to eliminate an adversarial relationship. Partners are then able to share information and accept reduced control. Mutual trust forms the basis for a strong working relationship.

37. What is shared vision?

Ans. Each of the partnering organization must understand the need to satisfy the final customer. To achieve this vision, there should be an open and candid exchange of needs and expectations. Shared goals and objectives ensure a common direction and must be aligned with each party’s mission.