**Frequency Response of RC Coupled Amplifier:**

The curve drawn between the voltage gain and signal frequency of an amplifier is known as the **frequency response**. The performance of an frequency response of RC coupled amplifier is judged to a considerable extent by its frequency response. In the design of an amplifier, appropriate steps are taken to ensure that gain is essentially uniform over some specified range.

Video amplifiers are almost invariably of the R-C coupled type. For such a stage the frequency response of RC coupled amplifier characteristics may be divided into three regions: **Midband-frequency region**, **low-frequency region** and **high-frequency region**.

In midband-frequency region, the amplification remains reasonably constant and equal to A_{vm}. For the present discussion midband gain may be assumed to be normalized to unity, i.e., A_{vm} = 1.

**Low-Frequency Response:** In the low-frequency region, below the midband, an amplifier stage behaves like the simple high-pass circuit (Fig. 16.5) of time constant τ_{1} = R_{1}C_{1}.

The current through the circuit is given by

and output voltage,

The voltage gain at low frequencies A_{vl}, is defined as the ratio of the output voltage V_{out}, to the input voltage V_{in}.

where f_{1} is the cutoff frequency and

Now magnitude of A_{vl} and phase angle θ are given by

At the frequency f = f_{1}, A_{vl} = 1/√2 =0.707 whereas in the midband region (f >>f_{1}), A_{vl} → 1. Hence f_{1 }is the frequency at which the gain has fallen to 0.707 times its midband value A_{vm}. The drop in signal level (assuming equal input and output impedances) corresponds to a decibel reduction of 20 log 1/√2 or -3 dB. Accordingly, f_{1} is referred to as the **lower 3-dB frequency**. From Eq. (16.26) it is observed that f_{1 }is that frequency for which the resistance R_{1} equals the capacitive reactance i.e. R_{1} = 1/2πf_{1}C_{1}.

**High-Frequency Response:** In the high-frequency region, above midband, the stage behaves like a simple low-pass circuit shown in Fig. 16.6.

Proceeding as above, we obtain for the magnitude |A_{vh}| and phase angle θ_{2} of the gain

Since at f = f_{2} the gain is reduced to 1/√2 times its midband value, then f_{2} is called the **upper 3-dB frequency**. It also represents that frequency for which the resistance R_{2 }is equal to the capacitive reactance 1/2πf_{2}C_{2}.

In the above expressions θ_{1} and θ_{2} represent the angle by which the output lags the input, neglecting the initial 180° phase shift through the amplifier. The frequency dependence of the gains in the high- and low-frequency range is to be seen in Fig. 16.7.

**Bandwidth:** The frequency range from f_{1} to f_{2} is called the **bandwidth (BW)** of the amplifier stage.