Category: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

Linear IC 723 Regulator

Linear IC 723 Regulator: The popular general purpose precision regulator is Linear IC 723 Regulator. It is a monolithic linear integrated circuit in different physical packages. The pin diagram along with the various packages is shown in the Fig. 2.109 (a), (b) and (c). Important Features of IC 723: It works as voltage regulator at […]

Astable Multivibrator Using IC 555

Astable Multivibrator Using IC 555: The Fig. 2.105 shows the Astable Multivibrator Using IC 555. The threshold input is connected to the trigger input. Two external resistances RA, RB and a capacitor C is used in the circuit. This circuit has no stable state. The circuits changes its state alternately. Hence the operation is also […]

Monostable Multivibrator Using IC 555

Monostable Multivibrator Using IC 555: The IC 555 timer can be operated as a Monostable Multivibrator Using IC 555 by connecting an external resistor and a capacitor as shown in the Fig. 2.102. The circuit has only one stable state. When trigger is applied, it produces a pulse at the output and returns back to […]

Timer IC 555

Timer IC 555: The timer IC 555 is most versatile linear integrated device introduced by Signetics corporation in early 1970. It is basically a monolithic timer circuit which can be used in many applications such as monostable and astable multivibrators, linear ramp generator, missing pulse detector, pulse width modulator etc. The Timer IC 555 combines […]

Wien Bridge Oscillator

Wien Bridge Oscillator: This is also RC oscillator which uses RC type of feedback network. The main difference between phase shift and Wien bridge oscillator is that the R-C phase shift oscillator introduces 180° phase shift during the amplifier stage, while Wien bridge oscillator uses a non-inverting amplifier. So in Wien bridge type there is […]

Triangular Wave Generator Using Op amp

Triangular Wave Generator Using Op amp: We have seen that, the output of integrator is a Triangular Wave Generator Using Op amp if its input is a square wave. This means that a Triangular Wave Generator Using Op amp can be formed by simply connecting an integrator to the square wave generator as shown in the […]

Square Wave Generator Using Op amp

Square Wave Generator Using Op amp: The Square Wave Generator Using Op amp means the astable multivibrator circuit using op-amp, which generates the square wave of required frequency. The Fig. 2.83 shows the square wave generator using op amp. It looks like a comparator with hysteresis (schmitt trigger), except that the input voltage is replaced […]

Second Order High Pass Butterworth Filter

Second Order High Pass Butterworth Filter: The second order high pass Butterworth filter produces a gain roll off at the rate of + 40 dB/decade in the stop band. This filter also can be realised by interchanging the positions of resistors and capacitors in a second order low pass Butterworth filter. The Fig. 2.81 shows […]

First Order High Pass Butterworth Filter

First Order High Pass Butterworth Filter: As mentioned earlier, a high pass filter is a circuit that attenuates all the signals below a specified cut off frequency denoted as fL. Thus, a high pass filter performs the opposite function to that of low pass filter. Hence, the First Order High Pass Butterworth Filter circuit can […]

Second Order Low Pass Butterworth Filter

Second Order Low Pass Butterworth Filter: The practical response of Second Order Low Pass Butterworth Filter must be very close to an ideal one. In case of low pass filter, it is always desirable that the gain rolls off very fast after the cut off frequency, in the stop band. In case of first order […]

First Order Low Pass Butterworth Filter

First Order Low Pass Butterworth Filter: The first order low pass butterworth filter is realised by R-C circuit used alongwith an op-amp, used in the noninverting configuration. The circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 2.74. This also called one pole low pass butterworth filter. The resistances Rf and R1 decide the gain of the filter […]

Butterworth Filters

Butterworth Filters: The filter in which denominator polynomial of its transfer function is a Butterworth polynomial is called a Butterworth filters. The Butterworth polynomials of various orders are given in the Tables 2.3 and 2.4. The coefficients of Butterworth polynomials are as given in the Table 2.4.  

Important Remarks and Observations About Filters

Important Remarks and Observations About Filters: Important Remarks and Observations About Filters – The filter can be represented in the time domain and frequency domain as shown in Fig. 2.73 (a) and (b). As the filter is frequency selective network, the output VO (t) contains only some of the frequency components of Vin (t). It is convenient to […]

Frequency Response Characteristics of Filters

Frequency Response Characteristics of Filters The Fig. 2.71 shows the Frequency Response Characteristics of Filters. A low pass filter has a constant gain from 0 Hz to a high cut-off frequency, fH. Hence, the bandwidth of this filter is also fH. The ideal characteristics is shown in Fig. 2.71 (a). The circuit allows the range […]

Active Filters

Active Filters Active Filters is a circuit that is designed to pass a specified band frequencies while attenuating all the signals outside that band. It is a frequency selective circuit. The filters are basically classified as active filters and passive filters. The passive filter networks use only passive elements such as resistors, inductors and capacitors. On the other […]