Reactive Plasma Etching

Reactive Plasma Etching: The reactive plasma is the discharge in which gases ionized producing chemically active species, oxidizers, reagents. The plasma is reactive in both gaseous and solid phase, hence the name is reactive plasma. These plasmas are used to remove the ‘materials from the surfaces which are not masked by the lithographic patterns. The […]


Lithography: Lithography is a process which is used to produce a multiple image on the resists which covers the wafer. A lithographic process can be realized with the help of three subprocesses given by, deposit of the resist, imaging of the wafer, and etching of the oxide. In lithographic process, the radiation from a source […]


Oxidation: Oxidation is very important process in the IC fabrication. In one line, oxidation can be explained as the production of Si02 using the thermal growth technique. Some of the important uses of Si02 are as follows. In bipolar and MOS transistors, it isolates one device from other. It provides surface passivation. It acts as […]

Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Molecular Beam Epitaxy: The molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is based on evaporation. In MBE, the film is evaporated and deposited one layer at a time. In the process, no chemical reactions are considered. Instead of that the evaporation of silicon and other dopant is carried out under ultra high vacuum (UHV) pressures of the orders […]

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