Introduction to Electronics Instrumentation which serves not only science but all branches of engineering, medicine, and almost every human endeavour. The knowledge of any parameter largely depends on the measurement. The indepth knowledge of any parameter can be easily understood by the use of measurement, and further modifications can also be obtained.
Measuring is basically used to monitor a process or operation, or as well as the controlling process. For example, thermometers, barometers, anemometers are used to indicate the environmental conditions. Similarly, water, gas and electric meters are used to keep track of the quantity of the commodity used, and also special monitoring equipment are used in hospitals. Whatever may be the nature of application, intelligent selection and use of measuring equipment depends on a broad knowledge of what is available and how the performance of the equipment renders itself for the job to be performed. But there are some basic measurement techniques and devices that are useful and will continue to be widely used also.
There is always a need for improvement and development of new equipment to solve measurement problems. The major problem encountered with any measuring instrument is the error. Therefore, it is obviously necessary to select the appropriate measuring instrument and measurement method which minimises error. To avoid errors in any experimental work, careful planning, execution and evaluation of the experiment are essential.
The basic concern of any measurement is that the measuring instrument should not effect the quantity being measured; in practice, this non-interference principle is never strictly obeyed. Null measurements with the use of feedback in an instrument minimise these interference effects.