Continued Fractions Method: This Continued Fractions Method is very popularly used to find the equivalent resistance of a ladder type resistive network. Consider a ladder network as shown in the Fig. 1.40. Let us calculate equivalent resistance by series parallel method first. So (t + u) is in parallel with s. The combination is in series with […]

### NETWORK ANALYSIS

## Nodal analysis

Nodal analysis: This Nodal analysis method is mainly based on Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL). This method uses the analysis of the different nodes of the network. We have already defined a node. Every junction point in a network, where two or more branches meet is called a node. One of the nodes is assumed as […]

## Mesh Analysis

Mesh Analysis or Loop Analysis: This method of Mesh Analysis is specially useful for the circuits that have many nodes and loops. The difference between application of Kirchhoff’s laws and loop analysis is, in loop analysis instead of branch currents, the loop currents are considered for writing the equations. The another difference is, in this method, […]

## Source Transformation

Source Transformation: Sometimes in the complex network, both the energy sources may be present. But in loop analysis, all the energy sources should be preferably voltage sources and in node analysis, all the energy sources should be preferably current sources. The source transformation technique is useful in converting voltage source to current source and current […]

## Cramer Rule

Cramer Rule: If the network is complex, the number of equations i.e. unknowns increases. In such case, the solution of simultaneous equations can be obtained by Cramer Rule for determinants. Let us say that set of simultaneous equations obtained is, as follows : Then Cramer’s Rule says that form a system determinant Δ or […]

## Star Delta Transformation

Star Delta Transformation: In the complicated networks involving large number of elements, Star Delta Transformation or Delta Star transformations considerably reduce the complexity of the network and network can be analysed very quickly. These transformations allow us to replace three star connected elements of network, by equivalent Delta connected elements without affecting currents in other […]

## AC Fundamentals

AC Fundamentals: Let us discuss in brief, the AC Fundamentals necessary to analyse the networks consisting of various alternating current and voltage sources, resistances and inductive, capacitive reactances. An alternating current or voltage is the one which changes periodically both in Cycle magnitude and direction. Such Change in magnitude and direction is measured in terms […]

## Types of Energy Sources

Types of Energy Sources: There are basically two Types of Energy Sources ; voltage source and current source. These are classified as i) Ideal source and ii) Practical source. Let us see the difference between ideal and practical sources. Voltage Source Ideal voltage source is defined as the energy source which gives constant voltage across […]

## Circuit Elements

Circuit Elements: Let us take a brief review of three basic Circuit Elements namely resistance, capacitance and inductance. Resistance It is the property of the material by which it opposes the flow of current through it. The resistance of element is denoted by the symbol ‘R’. Resistance is measured in ohms (Ω). The relation between […]

## Classification of Electrical Network

Classification of Electrical Network: The behaviour of the entire network depends on the behaviour and characteristics of its elements. Based on such characteristics electrical network can be classified as below : 1.Linear Network : A circuit or network whose parameters i.e. elements like resistances, inductances and capacitances are always constant irrespective of the change in […]

## Network Terminology

Network Terminology: In this Network Terminology, we shall define some of the basic terms which are commonly associated with a network. 1.Network Any arrangement of the various electrical energy sources along with the different circuit elements is called an electrical network. Such a network is shown in the Fig. 1.1. 2.Network Element Any individual circuit […]