Decentralized Control: Decentralized Control – In view of the large size of a modern power system, it is virtually impossible to implement either the classical or the modern LFC algorithm in a centralized manner. In Fig. 8.24, a decentralized control scheme is shown. x1 is used to find out the vector u1 while x2 alone […]

### AUTOMATION GENERATION

## Digital LF Controllers

Digital LF Controllers: Digital LF Controllers – In recent years, increasingly more attention is being paid to the question of digital implementation of the automatic generation control algorithms This is mainly due to the facts that digital control turns out to be more accurate and reliable, compact in size, less sensitive to noise and drift […]

## Speed Governor Dead Band

Speed Governor Dead Band and its Effect on AGC: Speed Governor Dead Band – The effect of the speed governor dead-band is that for a given position of the governor control valves, an increase/decrease in speed can occur before the position of the valve changes. The governor dead-band can materially affect the system response. In […]

## Generation Rate Constraint

Generation Rate Constraint(GRCs): The Load frequency Control with Generation Rate Constraint problem discussed so far does not consider the effect of the restrictions on the rate of change of power generation. In power systems having steam plants, power generation can change only at a specified maximum rate. The generation rate (from safety considerations of the […]

## Automatic Voltage Control

Automatic Voltage Control: Automatic Voltage Control – Figure 8.20 gives the schematic diagram of an automatic voltage regulator of a generator. It basically consists of a main exciter which excites the alternator field to control the output voltage. The exciter field is automatically controlled through error e=Vref-VT suitably amplified through voltage and power amplifiers. It […]

## Optimal Two Area Load Frequency Control

Optimal Two Area Load Frequency Control: Optimal Two Area Load Frequency Control – Modern control theory is applied in this section to design an Optimal Two Area Load Frequency Control for a two-area system. In accordance with modem control terminology ΔPc1 and ΔPC2 will be referred to as control inputs u1 and u2. In the […]

## Two Area Load Frequency Control

Two Area Load Frequency Control: Two Area Load Frequency Control – An extended power system can be divided into a number of Two Area Load Frequency Control areas interconnected by means of tie lines. Without loss of generality we shall consider a two-area case connected by a single tie line as illustrated in Fig. 8.13. […]

## Load frequency Control and Economic Dispatch Control

Load frequency Control and Economic Dispatch Control: Load frequency Control and Economic Dispatch Control – Load frequency control with integral controller achieves zero steady state frequency error and a fast dynamic response, but it exercises no control over the relative loadings of various generating stations (i.e. economic dispatch) of the control area. For example, if […]

## Proportional Plus Integral Control

Proportional Plus Integral Control: Proportional Plus Integral Control – It is seen from the above discussion that with the speed governing system installed on each machine, the steady load frequency characteristic for a given speed changer setting has considerable droop, e.g. for the system being used for the illustration above, the steady state droop in […]

## Dynamic Response and Control area Concept

Dynamic Response and Control area Concept: Dynamic Response and Control area Concept – To obtain the dynamic response giving the change in frequency as function of the time for a step change in load, we must obtain the Laplace inverse of Eq. (8.14). The characteristic equation being of third order, dynamic response can only be […]

## Load Frequency Control

Load Frequency Control (Single Area Case): Load Frequency Control – Let us consider the problem of controlling the power output of the generators of a closely knit electric area so as to maintain the scheduled frequency. All the generators in such an area constitute a coherent group so that all the generators speed up and […]

## Automation Generation and Voltage Control

Automation Generation and Voltage Control: Automation Generation and Voltage Control – Power system operation considered so far was under conditions of steady load. However, both active and reactive power demands are never steady and they continually change with the rising or falling trend. Steam input to turbo generators (or water input to hydro-generators) must, therefore, […]